(Updated February 2018)

  【Official Name】Republic of Chad

  【Area】1.284 million k㎡

  【Population】14.5 million (2016). There are 256 ethnic groups. Official languages are French and Arabic. People in the south speak Sara language, which belongs to the Sudan language system, and people in the north speak Chad Arabic language. 58% of the population believe Islam, 18% in Catholicism, 16 % Protestantism, and 4% indigenous religion.

  【Capital】N'Djamena with a population of 1.1 million. The highest temperature is 42˚C in April and the lowest is 14˚C in December.

  【Head of State】President Idriss Deby Itno

  【Holiday】Independence Day/ National day (11 August);Freedom and Democracy Day (1 December 1st)

  【Geography and Climate】Chad is a landlocked country, located in central Africa and on the south edge of the Sahara Dessert. It is bordered by Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic and Cameroonto the south, Nigeria and Niger to the west, and Libya to the north. Throughout the year, it is very hot. The north is dessert or half dessert climate, the central area is Sahel tropical savanna climate, the south is tropical savanna climate. Apart from plateau and mountains in the north, in most of the areas annual average temperature is above 27˚C and even reach 29˚C.

  【History】In 1902, Chad became the colony of France. In 1910, Chad became part of the French Equatorial Africa. In 1911, part of its territory was conferred to Germany in exchange for Germany’s acknowledgment that France “protects” Morocco. Chad returned to France once again after the First World War. In 1946, Chad became France’s overseas territory. On 11 August 1960, it declared independence and François Tombalbaye served as head of state. In December 1990, Déby took office as President of the State Council (temporary government) and the head of state. In 4 March 1991, Déby took office as the President.

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